Volume 42 – Issue 2 – 2017

Contents

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF THE COMBINATION OF PLATELET-RICH FIBRIN (PRF) AND ALLOGENOUS BONE GRAFT AROUND IMMEDIATE IMPLANTS

Shaimaa A. Zaki, Sherif S. Mohamed, Ahmed M. Hommos,Adham A. El Ashwah

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INTRODUCTION: Following the immediate implant placement, there is a gap called jumping space which increases the risk of implant failure.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin membrane (PRF) combined with bone graft surrounding immediate implants in fresh extraction sockets.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical and radiographic study was carried out on ten fresh extraction sockets with age range from 20 to 50 years. Sockets were occupied by immediate endosseous implant and grafted with allogenous bone graft and PRF. After placement all implants were evaluated clinically after 6 months (modified sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth and degree of mobility) and radiographically to evaluate marginal bone loss.
RESULTS: There was less pain, edema, bleeding and probing depth in the study group than in the control group but the difference among them was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was significantly more bone density and less marginal bone loss in the study group than in the control group on the sixth postoperative month (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It is clear that PRF is biocompatible and can improve both soft tissue healing and bone regeneration after immediate implant placement. KEYWORDS: Immediate implant, PRF, bone graft.


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DETECTION OF CRACK FORMATION FOLLOWING CORONAL FLARING WITH THREE DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS USING TWO EVALUATION METHODS(IN VITRO STUDY)

Sally M. Nazir, Amr M. Abdallah, Nayera A. Mokhless

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INTRODUCTION: Coronal flaring is now considered as an essential preparatory step in root canal treatment sequence.
OBJECTIVES: To detect crack formation after coronal flaring of root canals with Gates Glidden (GG) drills, ProTaper Universal (PT) SX, and Endoflare (Ef) flaring instruments using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular first molars were selected.
Teeth specimens were classified into three equal groups according to the instrument used for coronal flaring. Group1: Gates Glidden drills, group 2: ProTaper Universal SX and group 3: Endoflare instruments. Preoperative and postoperative (CBCT) imaging was performed and defect formation was detected. All roots were sectioned horizontally at 2,4and 6 mm from the cementoenamel junction. The sections were inspected under SEM, and any defect formations were recorded and compared with CBCT images according to scoring system. Data were collected and then statistically analyzed at an alpha error of 0.05. P≤0.05 were considered significant.
RESULTS: The Ef file produced significantly less dentinal defects compared with the GG and PT SX at the three studied sections. Significant differences were found between the 3 groups at 2 and 4 mm with values (P=0.026) & (P=0.050) respectively, while no significant difference was found at 6mm with value of (P=0.217) when using the 2 evaluation methods. There was a significant difference (P=0.049) between the two used evaluation methods.
CONCLUSIONS: Although all used coronal flaring instruments caused dentinal defects, Endoflare file showed the least defects. CBCT was not able to detect the smallest defects such as craze lines while SEM showed more capabilities and was considered as a confirmatory method.
KEYWORDS: Coronal flaring, cracks, cone beam computed tomography, scanning electron microscope


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EFFICACY OF QUERCETIN ON ALVEOLAR BONE STRUCTURE OF RATS WITH INDUCED DIABETES

Mariam A. Abu Ayana, Nawal A. Elmasry, Fathy I. Shehata, Nesma M. Khalil

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INTRODUCTION: Diabetic osteopenia is the sixth classic complication of Diabetes mellitus. High glucose level is capable of triggering increased oxidative stress which induce osteoblast apoptosis. Quercetin, a powerful natural antioxidant, can protect many organs against oxidative damage, including bone.
OBJECTIVES: The present study is designed to investigate the effect of quercetin administration on the alveolar bone in rats with induced diabetes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into three equal groups (8 rats each) as follows: Group I: Control group, Group II: diabetic group (with no treatment), Group III: quercetin treated group (induction of diabetes with oral administration of quercetin dose 100mg/ kg/ day for 12 weeks). Diabetes was induced in group II and group III by a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). After 12 weeks all rats were sacrificed and the mandibles were dissected out and prepared for histological analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX).
RESULTS: In diabetic group, there was significant increase in blood sugar level. Bone surface revealed irregular surface with multiple resorptive pits. Moreover, there was significant decrease in calcium level and increase in phosphorous level while in quercetin group. Both blood sugar level and alveolar bone surface relatively returned back to normal. Also there was slight decrease in calcium and increase in phosphorous in comparison to control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin exerts protective effects on STZ-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats restoring the architecture of bone.
KEYWORDS: Quercetin, Streptozotocin, Diabetes, Alveolar bone.


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COMPARISON OF BITE FORCE RECOVERY FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF MANDIBULAR ANGLE FRACTURE USING ONE AND TWO MINIPLATES

Ahmed A. Abo Mustafa, Moustafa M. El Dibany, Mohamed M. Shokry, Lydia N. Foad

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INTRODUCTION: Rigid internal fixation using compression and non-compression plating systems has gained widespread popularity. The maximal bite force is the effort exerted between the maxillary and mandibular teeth when the mandible is elevated by the masticatory muscles.
OBJECTIVES: The Present study was conducted to compare the bite force recovery in patients with mandibular angle fractures treated by one monocortical miniplate and two monocortical miniplates fixation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bite force (in kg) was recorded in fourteen patients with mandibular angle fractures. Comparative evaluation of bite force generated was performed between seven cases treated with one monocortical miniplate and seven cases treated with two monocortical miniplates. Bite force generated by patients with mandibular angle fractures was recorded in incisor, premolar and molar regions preoperatively. The fracture fragments were fixed using the above fixation techniques. Then same recordings were undertaken weekly for 6 weeks and at 3 months postoperatively.
RESULTS: Bite force increased gradually in both groups in the anterior region, premolar region (right and left) and molar region (right and left) during the follow up period except a drop in group I during the 5th week in the right molar region. A statistically significant difference was found between the change in bite force from the previous follow-up visit in groups 1 and 2. This was shown from week 1 to week 4 in the incisor region, at week 1 in the right premolar region, at week 3 in the left premolar region, at week 5, 6 and 12 in the right molar region and at week 6 and 12 in the left molar region.
CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference between the uses of either one or two miniplates osteosynthesis in fixation of angle fractures. The miniplate osteosynthesis had proven to be a suitable method for treating mandibular angle fractures.
KEYWORDS: mandible fracture, angle, miniplates, bite force.


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EVALUATION OF THE SOCKET SHIELD TECHNIQUE FOR IMMEDIATE IMPLANTATION

Dalia A. Barakat , Ragab S. Hassan , Riham M. Eldibany

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INTRODUCTION: Numerous publications have verified that tooth extraction is followed by dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge contour. The resorption of the alveolar ridge is more pronounced on the buccal than on the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. In particular, in the aesthetic zone, the successive soft and hard tissue deficiencies can interfere with optimal implant positioning and hamper the overall aesthetic outcome of implant-supported prostheses.
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the socket shield technique clinically and radiographically as a new modality for immediate implantation in comparison to the conventional technique.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty patients were included in this study (n=20). They were divided in two groups; group I: Ten maxillary single rooted teeth were extracted followed by immediate implant placement using the socket shield technique. Group II: Ten maxillary single rooted teeth were extracted followed by immediate implant placement using the conventional technique. All implants were evaluated clinically and radiographically to evaluate bone loss on intervals of 1, 4 and 7 months.
RESULTS: the mean horizontal and vertical bone loss value in socket shield technique group was 0.09±0.03mm & 0.43±0.23mm contrary to the conventional implantation after 7 months follow up, which was 0.33±0.14mm & 1.56±0.77mm which was statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: The socket shield technique was beneficial in preserving the buccal bone plate
KEYWORDS: ridge preservation, immediate implant, socket shield


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COMPARISON OF BONE HEALING AROUND NANO TOPOGRAPHY DENTAL IMPLANT VERSUS CONVENTIONAL IMPLANT

Ali H. Amer, Saeeda M. Osman, Lydia N. Foad

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INTRODUCTION: Implant surface characteristics differ greatly among various Implants. Early bone healing around the implant surface can be crucial in determining various treatment plans and outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: Comparison of early bone healing between two commercially available implants one with a nanotopographical surface and one with a conventionally treated surface in the maxillary anterior region of the oral cavity using cone beam CT.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients were selected from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University where patients were indicated for bilateral maxillary anterior implants as delayed Implantation with a total of 14 implants divided into two groups: Study group: Seven implants with a nanotopographic surface. Control group: Seven implants with a conventional surface. Bone density was measured according to gray scale using CBCT and dedicated software pre-operatively and at four and six weeks postoperatively.
RESULTS: For control group implants the average mean and standard deviation of bone density of the placed implants at four weeks post-operatively was 1010.02 ± 142.59 Hounsfield units and 1104.4 ± 152.9 HU at six weeks post-operatively. While for study group implants the average mean and standard deviation of bone density of the placed implants at four weeks post-operatively was 1208.04 ± 145.82 HU and 1328.85 ± 160.41 HU at six weeks post-operatively. After comparing these results, it was shown that the average mean and standard deviation of bone density of all implants of the study group is greater than the average mean and standard deviation of bone density of all implants of the control group, which results in p-value of <0.001 which is statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant increase in the early bone healing around nanotopographic dental implants as opposed to conventionally chemically modified implants. KEY WORDS: Surface treatment, nanotopographic implants, chemically modified implants, early bone healing, cone beam CT, Hounsfield Units.


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POST-EXTRACTION SOCKET PRESERVATION WITH AUTOGENOUS BONE GRAFT AND HYALURONIC ACID FOLLOWED BY DELAYED IMPLANT PLACEMENT

Rasha A. Taman, Magued H. Fahmy, Sahar Sh. Karam,Adham A. EL Ashwah

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INTRODUCTION: Alveolar ridge atrophy following tooth extraction remains a challenge for future implant placement. Post-extraction socket preservation and implant placement are two methods that are used to prevent significant post-extraction bone loss.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of hyaluronic acid when mixed with autogenous bone graft in alveolar socket preservation for future implant placement.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A split mouth randomized clinical trial was carried out in 10 patients, 20 mandibular extraction sockets of single rooted teeth with age ranged between 25-55 years, 10 sockets were grafted with autogenous bone graft only using Auto-MaxTM bone harvester and the other 10 sockets were grafted with autogenous bone graft mixed with hyaluronic acid (HyadentTM).
All sockets were evaluated clinically, radiographically, and histologically (after 2 months, core biopsy was taken before implant placement) then histomophometric analysis and delayed implant insertion were done followed by implant stability assessment. After 4 months, final prosthesis was delivered.
RESULTS: Histological evaluation revealed rapid thick bone deposition with many well organized osteocytes as well as osteoblast lining of the bone surfaces in the study group and increased mean area percent of formed bone. Radiographic bone density changes were found to be statistically significant between the two studied groups. (P2= <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of autogenous bone graft with hyaluronic acid appears to be more efficient in osteoconduction when compared with autogenous bone graft alone and could be a promising strategy for preservation of alveolar sockets. KEYWORDS: Hyaluronic acid, Autogenous bone graft, Socket preservation, Implant stability.


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CLINICAL AND RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF COLLAGENATED CORTICO-CANCELLOUS BONE GRAFT AFTER MANDIBULAR CYST ENUCLEATION

Abdelrahman S. El-ghamrawy, Nevine S. Mohammed, Lydia N. Melek

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INTRODUCTION: Dental cysts constitute a considerable share in the jaw bones disorders. The cystic lesions are the major factor causing jaw destruction. Bone grafts are used to reduce risk of jaw weakness and to shorten the period of healing after cyst enucleation.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of collagenated heterologous cortico-cancellous bone mix radiologically and clinically after enculeation of mandibular cysts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of twenty-four patients suffering from cysts affecting the lower jaw bones and seeking for surgical treatment. Patients were assigned into 2 parallel groups with allocation ratio 1:1.
Group A: Consisted of twelve patients, into whom Collagenated heterologous cortico-cancellous bone mix (Osteobiol® Gel 40 E, Italy) was applied as grafting material after enculeation of mandibular cyst.
Group B: consisted of twelve patients with enculeated cyst without applying any grafting material acting as control.
A cone beam computed tomography was performed for each patient to evaluate bone density immediately and after 6 months.
RESULTS: Radiographic analysis using cone beam computerized tomography revealed that there was gradual increase in bone densities in the grafted defects. The mean value of bone density pre-operatively was 734.8 ± 105.1 HU which increased to 1634.4 ± 222.2 HU at the end of the follow up period.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of collagenated cortico-cancellous bone graft greatly enhances bone deposition in bony defects.
KEYWORDS: mandibular cysts, collagenated heterologous cortico-cancellous bone mix and surgical bone defect.


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THE EFFECT OF PLATELET RICH FIBRIN ON ANGIOGENESIS DURING PERIODONTAL REGENERATION

Moody A. Samuel, Maha A. Abou Khadr, Azza S. Koura, Marwa I. Madi

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INTRODUCTION: Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous healing biomaterial composed of a fibrin clot matrix entrapping leukocytes, cytokines, living progenitor cells, and platelets capable of releasing various growth factors harvested from a simple blood sample.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of PRF on angiogenesis during the periodontal regeneration of surgically created grade ΙΙ furcation defects in dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A split mouth design was carried out using the third and fourth mandibular premolars of 2 healthy mongrel adult dogs. A total of eight grade II furcation defects were surgically created. The defects in the study side were augmented with PRF mixed with a β-TCP and covered by a PRF membrane and a collagen membrane. In the control side the defects were augmented with β-TCP and covered with a collagen membrane. The dogs were sacrificed after 1 and 2 months. Samples were dissected and prepared for histological evaluation.
RESULTS: Histological results showed that PRF addition led to higher vascularization of the study samples at all age groups; this was evident at one month in the form of numerous blood vessels entrapping RBCs and at 2 months by the presence of red bone marrow and blood vessels entrapping RBCs within.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of PRF to β -TCP was found to be effective in enhancing angiogenesis during the periodontal regeneration of grade II furcation defects.
KEYWORDS: Platelet Rich Fibrin, Angiogenesis, Periodontal regeneration, Grade II furcation defects, β-TCP.


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EXPRESSION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA: A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

Ahmed M. Gouda, Fatma H. El-Didi, Zeinab E. Darwish, Ibrahim M. Zeitoun

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INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most widely occurring cancer worldwide. It represents the tenth most common cancer affecting the world population. Like all other tumors, malignant epithelial cells of the OSCC need adequate blood supply and thus tend to recruit new blood vessels by Angiogenesis (the formation of new vessels by sprouting of the pre-existing endothelium). The major regulators of blood and lymph vessel development are the members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) family. These are multifunctional proteins mainly involved in normal and pathologic angiogenesis. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of VEGF family
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of VEGF-A in OSCC and to correlate it with both histopathological grading and clinical data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes 20 patients with OSCC. The lesions of concern were clinically examined and biopsied. The tissue biopsies, as well as five negative control specimens, were processed and paraffin sections were prepared. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were examined for grading of the carcinoma. The immunohistochemical expression of VEGF was evaluated by the use of Anti-VEGF-A Antibody using the Strept-Avidin-Biotin method on paraffin sections. Immunohistochemical results were evaluated using an image analyzer. Results were recorded and statistically analyzed and correlated with both clinical and histological grading of the tumors.
RESULTS: The expression of VEGF was found to be significantly related to the grade of differentiation of the tumor, where the poorer the differentiation, the more the expression the antibody. On the contrary, no significant relation between VEGF expression and clinical data was found.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of VEGF is of a great value as a means of diagnosis concerning histological grading of the tumor, but cannot be used as a sole method for evaluating the case prognosis.
KEYWORDS: OSCC, VEGF, Immunohistochemistry, angiogenesis


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THE EFFECT OF TWO AGING METHODS ON THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF YTTRIA STABILISED ZIRCONIA POLYCRYSTALS (IN VITRO STUDY)

Amr A. Elsheemy. Samir I. Bakry. Amir S Azer. Tamer M Abdelrazik.

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INTRODUCTION: Dental zirconia restorations present long-term clinical survival and stay in service within the oral environment for many years. However, low temperature degradation could affect their mechanical properties and survival.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of two aging methods on the flexural strength and crystal structure of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty bar specimens were prepared from a Yttria stabilized zirconia polycrystals and were divided into 3 groups (control, aged for 720,000 mechanical loads of 50N and 3600 thermal cycles, aged for 1 hour using autoclave). The aging procedures represent 3 years of clinical use. The specimens were loaded until fracture and the crystalline phase polymorphs of the material (tetragonal, t, and monoclinic, m, zirconia) were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Further investigations were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data was statistically analysed using ANOVA test.
RESULTS: Group B and C showed no statistical significance in their flexural strength with means of their break force (793.23±164.03) and (780.97 ± 257.25) respectively but statistically significant and higher than group A with mean (549.7 ± 54.14). The XRD showed nearly no change in the crystal structure between group A and B but an increase in the percent of monoclinic phase in group C. The SEM demonstrated a relatively homogenous size with particle size ranged between 400 to 570 μm for group A, while Group B and C showed an increase in particle size between 768 to 1150 μm respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Both aging methods caused changes in the flexural strength and structure of the zirconia specimens with no significant difference between them.
KEYWORDS: Fixed prosthodontics, Zirconia, Aging, Low temperature degradation.


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HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BONE REGENERATION AFTER USE OF PROPOLIS VERSUS NANOBONE GRAFT MATERIALS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CLASS II FURCATION DEFECTS IN DOGS

Amr A. Zohery1BDS, Zubaida M. Nour, Samia S. Abd El Rehim, Marwa I. Mady

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INTRODUCTION: Nanotechnology has been greatly utilized for bone regeneration strategies. It helps overcome some of the current limitations associated with bone regeneration methods Propolis is a natural substance made by the honeybee, it has effective antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, it has multiple biological effects including improvement of wound healing and bone regeneration.
OBJECTIVES: comparison of the effectiveness of NanoBone graft and propolis material on the inter-radicular bone regeneration in Mongrel dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A split mouth design was carried out using the third and fourth mandibular premolars of 3 healthy mongrel dogs. A total of 12 grade II furcation defects were surgically created. The defects in the right side were treated with NanoBone graft and then a collagen membrane was used to cover the defects. In the left side the defects were treated with propolis and then covered with collagen membrane. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Segments of the jaw bone containing the defects were then dissected out and prepared for histological evaluation.
RESULTS: Both percentage of bone fill and percentage of bone surface area in defects treated with propolis powder were higher than those in NanoBone-filled defects.
CONCLUSIONS: Both propolis and NanoBone graft materials have bone regenerative effects with higher ability of propolis to regenerate bone.
KEYWORDS: Regeneration, Furcation, NanoBone, Bone graft, Propolis, Antioxidant.


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Quantitative analysis of tissue regeneration after use of chitosan membrane versus collagen membrane in the management of grade II furcation defects in dogs

Fatma M Boker, Maha A Abou-Khadr, Hanna S Raslan, Rania A Fahmy

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INTRODUCTION: Involvement of the furcations of multirooted teeth represents a challenge in the treatment of periodontal disease, both from a prognostic perspective and from the perspective of therapeutic measures.
OBJECTIVES: the current investigation was conducted to evaluate the regenerative potential of chitosan membrane in the management of critical size grade II furcation defects and to compare it with conventional therapy using collagen membrane.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total number of four adult systemically healthy mongrel dogs were included in the current study. Grade II critical-sized furcation defects were surgically created with respect to lower premolar teeth. In all four dogs, the right quadrants received chitosan membrane with natural hydroxyapatite. Whereas, the left quadrants received collagen membrane with natural hydroxyapatite.
RESULTS: The present study observed that chitosan was better than collagen regarding mean bone surface area (P < 0.05) and the difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Chitosan membrane is an effective, easy to handle, cheap membrane that can be used in periodontal regeneration of furcation defects. Chitosan membrane showed superior periodontal tissue regeneration when compared to collagen membrane in the mangement of such defects. KEY WORDS: chitosan, collagen, tissue regeneration, furcation defects


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EXPRESSION OF METASTASIS ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1 AS A POSSIBLE PROGNOSTIC INDICATOR IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Wedad M. Nawar, Taissir A. Omar, Hamed A. Fouad, Gamal A. Swaify

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INTRODUCTION: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors related to survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although, metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1) overexpression is closely correlated with the metastasis of several human cancers, its role in determining lymph node metastases in OSCC patients remains undefined. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is the most representative proliferating marker; yet there is a controversy as to whether it can be used as a prognostic marker in OSCC.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immunoexpression of MTA1 and PCNA in metastatic versus non-metastatic OSCC; and correlate it with LN metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTA1 and PCNA immunoexpression was detected immunohistochemically in 20 OSCC specimens; 10 of which had metastatic LNs and 10 with non-metastatic LNs (used as a control group). Their correlation with LN metastasis was evaluated.
RESULTS: MTA1 immunoexpression showed significant correlation with LN metastasis but not with the histologic grade of the tumor. Whereas, PCNA immunoexpression revealed a significant correlation with the histologic grade of the tumor, but not with nodal metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that MTA1 protein may have a clinical potential to be used as a prognostic factor to identify pathologically node-negative OSCC patients who may be at high risk to develop regional metastasis. On the other hand, PCNA is unlikely to play an important role in predicting LN metastasis in OSCC patients.
KEYWORDS: OSCC, MTA1, PCNA, LN metastasis


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EFFECT OF INTRATUMORAL INJECTION OF DOXORUBICIN IN THE TREATMENT OF INDUCED ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY)

Marwa M. Essawy, Sahar M. El-Sheikh, Hanaa S. Raslan

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INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth common cancer. Surgery remains the main way of OSCC treatment. It is followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy either alone or in combination. Conventional chemotherapy is associated with systemic toxicity. Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the effective chemotherapeutic drugs. Direct delivery of chemotherapeutics may reduce their side effects.
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the anticancer effect of intratumoral injection of DOX in the treatment of chemically induced OSCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Syrian golden male hamsters were used as an animal model for oral carcinogenesis. After cancer induction, the hamsters were divided into 4 groups; saline-intraperitoneal (IP), saline-intratumoral, DOX-IP, and DOX-intratumoral. The clinical evaluation of the proposed treatment included measuring the change in tumor volume before and after treatment, whereas, the histological evaluation included calculating the apoptotic index. The proliferative activity was evaluated immunohistochemically by minichromosome maintenance 3 (MCM3). In all statistical results, a p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The DOX-IP and DOX-intratumoral groups reported significant decrease in the mean tumor volume. The apoptotic index (AI) was significant only in the DOX-intratumoral group. The MCM3 immunostain showed significant decrease in the values of mean area percent (MA%) and mean optical density (MOD) in DOX-intratumoral group, whereas the DOX-IP group was insignificant in its MA% and MOD. CONCLUSION : Local delivery of this chemotherapeutic drug may be suitable alternative to the systemic administration, with superior anti-cancer effect in the treatment of superficial tumors. KEY WORDS: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Chemotherapy, Doxorubicin, Intratumoral, Hamsters, Minichromosome maintenance 3


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