Alexandria Dental Journal (2016) Vol.41 Issue (2)

Contents

COLORIMETRIC COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY EFFEICIENCY

Faten S Abbas, Nazik A Elgindy, Esraa M AbdElmonem

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The appropriate masticatory function is of major importance in complete denture wearers, since it influences the digestion of food and quality of life. Thus, the bilateral balanced occlusal concept is used to achieve greater masticatory efficiency. However, a critical review of the literature reveals that there is not sufficient scientific evidence to support bilateral balanced occlusion as the most appropriate occlusal concept in complete dentures.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare clinically between complete denture wearers with bilateral balanced occlusion and canine guidance concepts through the evaluation of masticatory efficiency and patient satisfaction.
MATERIALS & METHODS: A controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted. The sample was composed by 20 edentulous patients who wore sets of complete dentures with both occlusal concepts periods of one month. Objective data were collected through the masticatory efficiency test performed by the colorimetric method with the beads, in which capsules of a synthetic material enclosing FDA approved dye-containing granules were used. Subjective data were recorded by general satisfaction patient questionnaire.
RESULTS: No significant statistical difference was found for the masticatory efficiency and patient satisfaction between the two occlusal concepts studied.
CONCLUSIONS: Both bilateral balanced occlusion and canine guidance improved the masticatory efficiency in complete denture wearers.
KEYWORDS: Bilateral balanced occlusions, canine guidance occlusion, complete dentures, masticatory efficiency, patient satisfaction.


> PDF
117

EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT BLEACHING CONCENTRATIONS ON MICROLEAKAGE AND MICROHARDNESS OF TOOTH-COLORED RESTORATIONS

Ahmed T. Rashwan, Mahmoud M. El-Sharkawey, Adel A. Kamar, Wegdan M. M. Abdel-Fattah

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Bleaching may exert some negative effects on existing resin restorations.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of bleaching with 14% and 40% hydrogen peroxide on microleakage and microhardness of different tooth-colored restorations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MICROLEAKAGE TEST: Class V cavities were prepared on labial surfaces of 60 extracted human upper central incisor teeth. The teeth were divided into 2 groups: Group I: restored with FiltekZ350XT composite, Group II: restored with Fuji II LC resin-modified glass ionomer. The teeth were thermocycled, each group was subdivided into 3 subgroups: subgroup A: was not bleached and served as control, subgroup B: bleached with 14% hydrogen peroxide gel and subgroup C: bleached with 40% hydrogen peroxide gel. The teeth were immersed in dye, sectioned, and dye penetration was scored at the incisal and cervical walls under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests.
MICROHARDNESS TEST: 20 specimens (2mm thickness and 10mm diameter) were prepared from Filtek Z350XT composite, and Fuji II LC RMGI. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling, after which the microhardness of each specimen was measured before bleaching. Specimens were subdivided in to 2 subgroups, and bleached with 14%, 40% hydrogen peroxide gels. After bleaching, microhardness of each specimen was measured again. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and paired t-test.
RESULTS: For microleakage test; statistical analysis showed no significant differences in microleakage of the tested composite and RMGI subgroups for incisal or cervical margins. For microhardness; the results showed significant increase in mean microhardness for the composite and RMGI subgroups bleached with 14% hydrogen peroxide, whereas, composite and RMGI subgroups bleached with 40% hydrogen peroxide showed significant decrease in mean microhardness.
CONCLUSIONS: Bleaching did not have an effect on microleakage of Filtek Z350XT composite and Fuji II LC RMGI restorations, while they affected the microhardness of these restorations.
KEYWORDS: Dental bleaching, microleakage, microhardness, tooth-colored restorations.


> PDF
122

SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF CERAMIC LAMINATE VENEERS TO ENAMEL AND ENAMEL–DENTINE COMPLEX BONDED WITH DIFFERENT ADHESIVE LUTING SYSTEMS

Nada H. Elkamhawy, Ahmed S. Elkadi, Fayza H. Alabbassy

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The laminate veneer technique bonds a thin ceramic laminate to the tooth surface with resin cements to restore anterior teeth. A vital importance is attributed to the strength and durability of the adhesion complex.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of ceramic laminate veneers to two different tooth substrates (Enamel and Enamel–Dentine complex), with different luting systems.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were used, and randomly divided according to tooth surface preparations into two main groups (n=30); Group A in Enamel (E) only and Group B in Enamel-Dentin complex (E-D), each group was then subdivided according to the type of resin cement received (Light cure LC or Dual cure DC) into four sub groups of 15 specimens each: Group A 1:(E + LC); Group A 2:(E + DC); Group B 1:(E-D + LC); Group B 2:(E-D + DC). Ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press, IvoclarVivadent) of 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were luted to the tooth surfaces by using the resin cement (Variolink Esthetic®, IvoclarVivadent) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min until bonding failure. Failure modes were determined under a stereomicroscope, and fracture surfaces were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analyzed (p≤0.05).
RESULTS: Group B 1 exhibited the lowest bond strength value(9.12±4.86MPa). There was statistically no difference among A 1, A 2 and among B 1, B 2(p>0.05). Group A 2 exhibited the highest bond strength value (14.73± 5.83MPa).
CONCLUSIONS: The type of tooth substrate affected the shear bond strength of the ceramic laminate veneers to the 2 different types of tooth structures (Enamel, Enamel–Dentine complex).
KEYWORDS: Porcelain laminate veneers, ceramic discs, Dentine exposure, Adhesives.


> PDF
131

MICROLEAKAGE OF CLASS II COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS WITH DIFFERENT RESTORATIVE TECHNIQUES

Dalia M Tayel, Mahmoud M El-Sharkawy, El-Sayed M Mahmoud

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Microleakage has been regarded as a primary concern for the use of composites in class II cavity restorations. Many techniques have attempted to minimize this leakage.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage in class II cavities restored with composite resins applied with either incremental, bulk fill or Sonic fill techniques.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty sound human permanent lower molars extracted for periodontal problems. Occluso-mesial class II cavity was prepared in each tooth, with the cervical margin of the proximal box located 1 mm occlusal to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The prepared teeth were randomly distributed to four groups with 10 specimens each (n=10). In each group, a self-etch adhesive was applied, followed by composite resin that was applied in either incremental, bulk fill or sonic fill technique; Group I: [Optibond all in one +Herculite XRV Ultra], Group II: [ Optibond all in one+ Premise flowable + Herculite XRV Ultra], Group III: [Single bond universal+Filtek bulkfill + Filtek Z250XT], Group IV: [ Optibond all in oneSonicFill]. All restored specimens were soaked in basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours, and sectioned mesiodistally to detect the extent of dye penetration by stereomicroscope. Data were collected and statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: The cervical margins showed more microleakage than the occlusal margins. Sonicfill in Group IV recorded the lowest mean value of microleakage scores among the four groups occlusally (mean=0.10), whereas Premise Flowable + Hercuilte XRV Ultra in Group II showed the highest mean value (1.20). Sonic fill in Group 1V recorded the lowest mean value of microleakage scores among the four groups cervically (mean= 0.80), whereas Premise Flowable + Hercuilte XRV Ultra in Group II showed the highest mean value (1.60). Kruskall-Wallis test proved no significant difference among groups. Mann Whitney test proved significant difference between Group II and Group IV occlusally.
CONCLUSIONS: Sonic fill showed the best results in terms of marginal seal.
KEYWORDS: Microleakage, class II, composite.


> PDF
138

EXTENDED-STORAGE IRREVERSIBLE HYDROCOLLOID IMPRESSION MATERIALS

Muhammed B. El-Danasory , Muhammed A. Gad , Seham A. Hanafy

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: There are many contingencies, so many dentists do not pour their own impressions immediately which clears the need for extended-storage alginate impression materials.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluating and comparing three extended-storage alginate impression materials concerning their dimensional stability.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty (180) specimens were prepared in accordance with ADA specification No. 18 using three extended-storage alginates; Hydrogum5 (Zhermack), Cavex ColorChange (Cavex) and Blueprint X Crème (Dentsply). Following to ADA specification No. 19 dimensional stability was evaluated directly at six intervals; 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours using 10 specimens/interval /material. Specimens for delayed evaluation, were stored moistened within sealed plastic bags in a dark room at 23 ±1ºc.
RESULTS: All impression materials showed initial expansion and ended with a net shrinkage. Cavex ColorChange showed the least dimensional changes. Dimensional changes of Cavex ColorChange, Hydrogum5 and Blueprint Xcrème ranged (0.14 - 0.59, 0.37 - 2.07 and 0.35 - 1.40% respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: While Cavex ColorChange can be stored up to 120 hours without clinically significant dimensional changes, Hydrogum5 and Blueprint Xcrème should be poured immediately for the best results.
KEYWORDS: Alginate; Extended storage; Dimensional stability; Cavex ColorChange; Hydrogum5; Blueprint Xcrème.


> PDF
146

EVALUATION OF COLOUR CHANGE DUE TO STAINING OF BLEACHED ENAMEL TREATED WITH DIFFERENT REMINERALIZING AGENTS

Yasmin E Elsaid, Ahmed Y Ashour, Wegdan M Abd El-fattah

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Bleached teeth are more susceptible to stain absorption due to increased surface roughness.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the tea stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel surface after being subjected to various remineralizing agents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors were subjected to bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide for 3 weeks. The teeth were then divided into four groups of 10 teeth each, according to the remineralizing agent used: [Group I: control group, which was not subjected to any remineralizing agent, Group II: acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF), Group III: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcim phosphate (CPP-ACP) and Group IV: nano carbonate apatite (n-CAP)]. Remineralization was performed for 5 minutes daily for 1 week followed by immersion in tea solution for 10 minutes for 3 consecutive days. Spectrophotometer was used for color analysis at different periods. Data were collected and statistically analyzed using ANOVA and paired t-test (p<0.05). RESULTS: After bleaching, the n-CAP group showed the least total color change (∆E) with a mean of (5.13 ± 1.40) and (7.85 ± 2.21) after the the 1st and 3rd staining cycles, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of tea stains absorption after bleaching varies according to the type of the remineralizing agents used. KEYWORDS: Bleaching; fluoride, casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate, nano- carbonate apatite, stain absorption, spectrophotometer.


> PDF
150

IN VITRO COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAVA ULTIMATE CAD/CAM RESTORATIVE SYSTEM IN COMPARISON TO IPS E-MAX PRESS

Ali Y. Dogheim, Ahmed S. El Kady , Mona M. Ghoneim , Maha A. Abdelmotie

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The increasing demand for esthetics stimulated research in metal-free, tooth-colored restorations.
OBJECTIVES: The study compares the biaxial flexural strength, surface roughness and color stability of CAD/CAM nano ceramic optimized composite resin Lava Ultimate material (3M ESPE), pressable ceramic IPS e-max (ivoclar vivadent) and feldspathic porcelain VM7(VITA)
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety specimens were used, divided into three groups 30 specimens each: first group of Lava Ultimate discs, second group of E-max Press discs and third group of VM7 discs: each group was divided into three subgroups ten specimens each: 10 specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test using universal testing machine, 10 to surface roughness test using profilometer and 10 for color stability test using spectrophotometer.
RESULTS: On comparing the biaxial flexural strength test there was no significant difference between Lava ultimate group and E-max press, while there was a significant increase in strength in Lava ultimate and E-max press group than the VM7.
As for the surface roughness test there was no significant difference between Lava ultimate and E-max press, while there was a significant increase in roughness in VM7 group than Lava ultimate and E-max press groups.
The Color difference in the three groups showed a significant increase in ΔE in Lava ultimate than E-max press. Also, there was a significant decrease in ΔE in VM7 group than Lava ultimate and E-max press groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The E-max press and the Lava Ultimate showed significantly higher biaxial flexural strength values and significantly lower surface roughness compared to VM7. Lava Ultimate has the least color stability due to its composite matrix although it could be repolished. VM7 is the most color stable so it could be used as veneers although it is the weakest ceramic in the study.
KEYWORDS: Porcelain, biaxial flexural strength, surface roughness, color stability.


> PDF
156

EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT TREATMENT AND DELAYED BONDING ON SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS BONDED TO BLEACHED ENAMEL

Beltagui S, Bakry S , Hussein S , Mohy El Din M

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Porcelain laminate veneers are sometimes necessary after bleaching in patients requiring marked change in tooth color. Bonding following bleaching has been shown to be compromised. The use of an antioxidant agent and delayed bonding could improve bonding.
OBECTIVES: was to evaluate the effect of antioxidant treatment and delayed bonding, one week after bleaching, on the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to bleached enamel in comparison with immediate bonding after bleaching.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty freshly extracted maxillary central incisors with flat enamel surfaces were prepared and divided into four groups (n=10/group). Three test groups were bleached with 40% hydrogen peroxide (Power Whitening) and one control group was left as unbleached enamel. Forty glass ceramic discs were fabricated using IPS e.max Press to be bonded to the enamel surface. Group A:antioxidant treated specimens. Bleached specimens were treated with an antioxidant agent, 10% sodium ascorbate, for 10 minutes then glass ceramic discs were bonded to the specimens. Group B:delayed bonded specimens. Bleached specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 7 days then glass ceramic discs were bonded to the specimens. Group C: immediate bonded specimens. Glass ceramic discs were immediately bonded to bleached specimens. Group D:control group. Glass ceramic discs were bonded to unbleached specimens. Dual cured resin cement (RelyX U200) was used for bonding. Following bonding, the specimens were thermocycled for 600 cycles corresponding to one clinical year service then tested for shear bond strength using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Bond failure analysis was evaluated for the specimens using a stereomicroscope and random samples were chosen to be tested under a scanning electron microscope.
RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the control, delayed bonding and antioxidant treated group (p<0.001). Immediately bonded group showed significantly lower mean bond strength with glass ceramic discs than all groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended to delay bonding for one week after bleaching or use 10% sodium ascorbate to reverse bleaching. KEYWORDS: Antioxidant, delayed bonding, shear bond strength, bleaching.


> PDF
163

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF TWO TYPES OF NANO PARTICLES INCORPORATED IN ZINC OXIDE BASED SEALERS ON ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS

Hala F. Mohammed, Mohammed M. Ibrahim,Abd El-Fattah H. Abd El-Fattah, Thanaa I. Shalaby4

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles have recently come into the spotlight in endodontic therapy.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of zinc oxide based sealer incorporated with silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles compared with simple zinc oxide sealer against Enterococcus faecalis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 60 human extracted mandibular premolars. After instrumentation of all teeth and inoculation of root canals with Enterococcus faecalis, teeth were divided into three groups according to the type of the tested sealer, Group I: control group where teeth were obturated with unmodified zinc oxide based sealer. Group II: teeth were obturated using sealer modified with silver nanoparticles, Group III: teeth were obturated using sealer modified with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups according to the timing of filling removal and culture sample. Subgroup A: filling removal and culture sample were taken after one week. Subgroup B: filling removal and culture sample were taken after three weeks. Colony counting technique was used , the number of colony forming unites method was counted to assess the effect against Enterococcus faecalis. Data were recorded, tabulated and statistically analyzed using Friedman test to compare the differences between the three groups.
RESULTS: After three weeks from obturation, silver nanoparticles had a superior antibacterial effect and there was a significant difference between the three tested groups, but after one week of obturation there was no significant difference between the three tested groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In three weeks samples after obturation silver nanoparticles had a superior antibacterial effect and there was a significant difference between the three tested groups, but after one week of obturation there was no significant difference between the three tested groups.
KEY WORDS: Enterococcus faecalis, silver nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles, zinc oxide eugenol sealer.


> PDF
169

EFFECT OF FISH OIL ON ALVEOLAR BONE OF RATS WITH INDUCED RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Nihal T. Elkazzaz, Salwa Y.AbdElSamad, Khadiga Y. Kawana,Azza S. Kora

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is primarily a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease which affects the synovial joints, it has profound effects on bone remodeling characterized by increase osteoclastic activity, and a negative balance of bone formation and resorption. A strong correlation has been reported between RA and periodontitis with subsequent alveolar bone resorption. As a potent anti-inflammatory mediator, fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has demonstrated beneficial actions in various inflammatory conditions including RA and cardiovascular disease. High intakes of n-3 PUFA provide symptomatic relief and reduce the doses of anti-inflammatory drugs needed to control the RA symptoms.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the biological effect of fish oil on alveolar bone of rats with induced rheumatoid arthritis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 3 groups 7 rats each. Group I: control group, Group II: RA induced group and Group III: RA induced group + fish oil. Rheumatoid arthritis induction was done by single subcutaneous injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Fish oil was orally gavaged daily till the end of the experiment. Laboratory investigations were performed twice, after RA induction and at the end of the experiment. Effect of fish oil on alveolar bone of rats was assessed histologically and ultrastructurely in the different groups.
RESULTS: Remarkable improvement in the histology and the ultrastructure of the alveolar bone of rats in Group III was observed. Moreover, hematological values revealed significant decrease in the inflammatory condition of rats with induced RA after fish oil treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Rheumatoid arthritis is an important risk factor for alveolar bone loss. The treatment of the RA induced rats with fish oil not only prevented the alveolar bone resorption and stimulated new bone formation, but also reduced relatively the level of rheumatoid factor in the blood.
KEYWORDS: Alveolar bone, Fish oil, Induced rheumatoid arthritis, Freund's complete adjuvant


> PDF
176

CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EVALUATION OF TWO OBTURATION TECHNIQUES AFTER PREPARATION WITH TWO NOVEL ROTARY SYSTEMS(IN VITRO STUDY)

Rodayna M. Ellakany, Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Nayera A. Mokhless

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Three dimensional obturation is an essential factor for the success of root canal treatment which is achieved by the adaptation of the root filling to the canal walls to create a homogenous mass of filling.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the obturation quality of different obturation techniques in curved canals using two rotary systems by CBCT.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected, decoronated to 12mm length and divided into two groups (n=20). Group I: instrumented with Protaper Next file system; Group II: instrumented with Wave One primary file, then they were subdivided into subgroups (A1, A2 and B1 ,B2) according to the obturation technique used . Subgroups (A1, A2) were obturated with single cone technique while subgroups (B1 , B2) were obturated using cold lateral compaction technique. Pre and post obturation CBCT images were used to assess the volume of voids in the filled canals. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.
RESULTS: Subgroup B1 showed the least amount of voids with percentage (14.82%), while subgroup B2showed the highest amount of voids with percentage (40.16%) when compared to the other subgroups. At the coronal level, subgroup B1 showed less volume of voids with mean percentage (13.41±9.11), while subgroup B2 showed higher amount of voids with mean percentage (23.17±5.27) than subgroups (A1and A2). At the middle third, there was no significant difference between the four subgroups. Apically, single cone subgroups (A1 and A2) produced significantly less volume of voids than lateral compaction subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: Protaper Next group obturated with lateral compaction technique provided the least amount of voids followed by the two single cone subgroups, while Wave one group obturated with lateral compaction technique provided the highest amount of voids.
KEYWORDS: CBCT, Protaper Next files, Wave one files, AH plus, Lateral Compaction, single cone technique.


> PDF
182

MARGINAL LEAKAGE EVALUATION OF GIOMER AND COMPOMER IN PRIMARY TEETH (IN-VITRO STUDY)

Heba I. Eldesouky, Azza G. Hanno, Niveen S. Bakry, Dawlat M. Ahmed

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Although many restorative materials are available in the market, microleakage around dental restorative materials presents a major problem in clinical dentistry. Giomer (Beautifill II) represents a new generation of dental materials that combines the properties of glass ionomers and composites.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal leakage in primary molars class II restored with Giomer and compare it to that of Compomer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four extracted sound primary molars (n=24) were selected for micro leakage test. Standardized class II cavities were prepared and the teeth were randomly assigned to two groups (n=12). Group I was restored with the Giomer (Beautiful II) and Group II was restored with Compomer (Dyract). Micro leakage test: Teeth were subjected to the process of thermocycling (5 ± 2°C–55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 s, 1000×). Teeth surfaces were coated with three layers of nail polish except a 1 mm wide window surrounding the margins of the restorations. The restored teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution, sectioned and examined under stereomicroscope. Data were collected, tabulated and statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Cervical microleakage scores were higher than occlusal microleakage scores with no significant difference in group I (Giomer) (p=0.915). In group II (Compomer) cervical microleakage scores were significantly higher than occlusal microleakage scores (p=0.033). Group I showed lower microleakage scores than group II and the difference was statistically nonsignificant at p value (0.155). CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant difference was detected, Giomer restorative material showed lower microleakage scores than Compomer. Giomer restorative material could be considered a suitable class II restoration of primary molar in high caries risk children. KEYWORDS: Giomers, Compomer, class II, microleakage, primary teeth.


> PDF
188

EFFECTIVENESS OF EGYPTIAN PROPOLIS ON DENTAL PLAQUE FORMATION IN HIGH CARIES RISK CHILDREN

Mazen M. Al-Hasani, Azza G. Hanno, Karin M. Dowidar, Osama N.Mostafa,Sobhi A. Soliman4

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The greatest preventive challenge in dentistry is the control of dental biofilm and consequently avoiding dental caries and gingival diseases. As an adjunct to the mechanical oral hygiene measures, antibacterial agents seem to offer great benefits in the control of plaque formation and gingivitis, especially in high risk patients with orthodontic appliances.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propolis mouthwash in children with fixed space maintainers regarding quantity of dental plaque and its microbial population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty children with space maintainers with an age range of 6 to 8 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups (test and control). The test group received the propolis mouthwash, and the controls received a placebo. All the patients were examined clinically to assess plaque accumulation using the plaque control record before and after the treatment. Plaque sampling and microbiological evaluation was used to estimate the numbers of colony forming units.
RESULTS: Data showed that the controls experienced no significant reduction in microbial plaque count from baseline to the end of 3 weeks (P≤0.11) whereas in the propolis mouthwash users there was a significant difference after 3 weeks (P≤0.0001). Among groups comparison of total microbial plaque counts before intervention, showed a significant difference (P≤0.02), and after the intervention, there was no significant difference between groups (P≤0.72). No significant difference was found in plaque index scores in the controls from baseline to the end of 3 weeks (P≤0.15), whereas in the propolis group there was a highly significant difference (P≤0.0001). Comparisons of mean plaque values between test and control groups before intervention showed significant difference (P≤0.04). After intervention the difference increased dramatically to a highly significant value (P≤0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: A mouthwash containing propolis significantly reduced bacterial count and plaque accumulation when used for 3 weeks.
KEYWORDS: Propolis, plaque, children, high risk, antibacterial.


> PDF
194

CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS DIGITAL ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPHY IN TREATMENT PLANNING FOR MANDIBULAR DENTAL IMPLANTS

Tareq M. Albelbeisi, Ahmed R Khtob, Nagy E Hassan

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: successful implant treatment depends on efficient planning. This should include information on height, width, morphology and density of the bone, as well as identification and location of anatomical landmarks in imaging exams.
OBJECTIVES: to investigate the impact of cone-beam computed tomography on implant planning and on prediction of final implant size.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: overall, 17 implant were placed in the posterior mandible of ten patients with age ranging between (25-50) years of both sexes. The patients were referred for pre surgical images. Initial planning of implant length and width was assessed based on panoramic radiograph exam, and final planning on cone-beam computed tomography exam to complement diagnosis. The actual dimensions of the implants placed during surgery were compared with those obtained during initial and final planning.
RESULTS: ten patients were selected, 4 males and 6 females and age ranged between (25-50) years. The study included 17 implants. Agreement in implant length was 58.8% between initial and final planning, and correct prediction of the actual implant length was 58.8% and 100%, using panoramic radiograph and cone-beam computed tomography exams, respectively. Agreement in implant width assessment ranged from 64.7% to 100%. A paired comparison of the frequency of changes between initial or final planning and implant placement (paired t-test) showed greater frequency of changes in initial planning for implant length (p<0.056), but not for implant width (p=0.342). CONCLUSIONS: it was concluded that cone-beam computed tomography improves the ability of predicting the actual implant length and reduces inaccuracy in surgical dental implant planning. KEYWORDS: dental implant, radiography, panoramic, cone-beam computed tomography.


> PDF
199

EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATELY LOADED KNIFE THREAD IMPLANTS FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF MANDIBULAR SINGLE- ROOTED TEETH (CLINICAL & RADIOGRAPHIC STUDY)

Nourhan M. Abd El-Moneim, Samraa A. El Sheikh, Sherif A. Tehemar

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Modern implantology is changing direction towards the development of new implant macrodesigns that are able to provide a high level of physico-mechanical characteristics and can offer a high level of primary implant stability that is important for long-term success of the immediate loading treatment protocols.
OBJECTIVES: Clinical and radiographic evaluation of immediately loaded knife thread implants for the replacement of mandibular single- rooted teeth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on ten adult patients with missing mandibular single rooted teeth. AnyRidge knife threaded tapered implants were inserted and immediately loaded with a non-occluding temporary crowns immediately after implant placement. After 3 months, final crowns were delivered. All implants were followed for 6 months. Clinically, each patient was evaluated for pain, tenderness or discomfort, presence of swelling or infection and mobility of the implant. Radiographically, standardized periapical x-ray films were taken then Image-J Processing Program was used for the assessment of marginal bone level and bone density around the implant.
RESULTS: In only one case moderate pain, peri-implant infection with suppuration and grade III mobility was registered in the first follow up month, that was regarded as a failure case and the implant was removed, resulting in implant survival rates of 90% after six months. There was a statistically significant increase in bone density around the implants throughout the evaluation period. The mean of peri-implant bone loss increased from immediately post-operative to the 3rd month. This increase was statistically significant. Then there was statistically insignificant decrease from the 3rd to the 6th months.
CONCLUSIONS: Immediate non-occlusal loading of knife thread implants for the replacement of mandibular single rooted teeth was a successful treatment procedure, with satisfactory clinical outcomes, good survival rate (90%) and a low incidence of complications.
KEY WORDS: Immediate loading, Knife threads, Dental implant, Nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface, Implant design, Thread design.


> PDF
206

PROTECTIVE ROLE OF HONEY AFTER LEAD TOXICITY EFFECT ON ALBINO RATS LINGUAL PAPILLAE

Waleed O. El shawakh, Afaf A. El-Sawa, Sahar K. Shafik

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Studies concerning exposure of human to lead during daily activities are sometimes leading to many complications. Lead is a poisonous heavy metal, it’s toxicity can change the antioxidant balance in biological tissues. Honey is rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids, which exhibit a wide range of biological effects and act as natural antioxidants.
OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the histological changes in lingual papillae following lead toxicity in experimental rats. (2) To assess the possible protective effects of honey using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, eight rats/ group. Group I (control): 1ml distilled water. Group II (control + honey): 50 mg/kg honey + 1ml distilled water. Group III (lead): 16.5 mg lead acetate. Group IV (honey + lead): 16.5 mg lead acetate + 50 mg/kg honey. All doses were given by oral intubations daily /6 weeks. After 6 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and tongues were dissected out and processed for SEM.
RESULTS: In Group II: Increased papillary density of the filiform papillae was noticed. In Group III the filiform papillae were distorted. Some appeared shorter while others had eroded tips and hyperkeratosis. Complete loss of papillae were seen in some samples. Disfigured fungiform papillae with swollen taste buds were seen. In Group IV, filiform and fungiform papillae appeared close to normal with minimal changes.
CONCLUSIONS: The atrophy observed in Group III could be explained by lead-induced oxidative stress. Lead toxicity had a dual effect where increased free radical formation together with depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes resulted in inflammation and increased cell injury. Lead causes anemia and decreased salivary secretion, which may explain the epithelial erosion. Honey exerted its protective role through restoring enzymatic activity and through its antioxidant mechanism.
KEYWORDS: Honey, filiform papillae, lead toxicity, fungiform papillae, SEM.


> PDF
214

OBESITY AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH VARIABLES AMONG A GROUP OF YOUNG ADOLESCENTS

Yomna A. Barakat, Azza G. Hanno, Niveen S. Bakry, Dalia I. Tayel

> Show Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and dental caries both are multifactorial diseases that impact adolescent's health and psychosocial development. They both share common, modifiable, influences such as diet and lifestyle.
OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to assess young adolescents' obesity and dietary habits association with dental caries experience and stimulated salivary flow rate.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional comparative study designs, fifty obese adolescents with mean age of 13.0±0.54 years and fifty normal weight adolescents with mean age of 12.87±0.45 years were selected from preparatory schools in Alexandria. They were clinically examined with respect to dental caries, as well as answered a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic background, oral hygiene practice, 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (kg/m2) for age and flow rate of stimulated whole saliva (ml/min) was determined. Total cariogenic food exposure time was calculated.
RESULTS: The obese subjects exhibited significant higher mean score of DMFS (4.84±3.65 for male - 5.00±2.04 for female) vs. 0.76±1.39 for male - 0.44±2.71 for female in normal weight group (p= 0.011) and (p= 0.001) respectively. Obese group had lower flow rate of stimulated whole saliva (1.74±0.75 ml/min for male-1.80±0.65 ml/min for female) vs 2.86±0.70 for males- 2.83±0.65 for females in normal weight group (p=0.001) and (p=0.018) respectively. Obese subjects exhibited significant higher cariogenic food total exposure time with mean of 155.60±59.56 min/day vs. 50.40±34.58 min/day (p<0.001). No significant difference existed between the two groups regarding different food groups consumption except for grain group according to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recommendations. In a multiple stepwise linear regression model for DMFS predictors, DMFS was significantly associated with lower flow rate of stimulated whole saliva (p < 0.001), cariogenic food total exposure time, added sugar and milk group consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Obese young adolescents are more likely to suffer from dental caries and lower salivary flow rate compared to normal weight ones. They are more liable to consume cariogenic snacks and grain group food items. KEYWORDS: Obesity, salivary flow, dental caries, dietary habits, cariogenic food total exposure time.


> PDF
220